I don’t know about you, but every year I’ve taught, I have students who come to me so defeated that they think the year’s over before it even starts. They’re so far behind in whatever subject it is (Math, English, whatever) that they don’t even want to try because they are convinced they’ll fail. I can’t blame them. If I knew that no matter what I did I was going to see “F” after “F” on every paper I got back, I wouldn’t want to put forth much effort, either. These were the grades they were getting (and would continue to get) on assignments if I graded on accuracy. The problem was that I was teaching and assessing on grade level, even though so many students were woefully below it. My hands were tied somewhat in terms of curriculum. I could do some remediation, but there just wasn’t ever going to be enough time in the day (or year) to make up for year upon year of missing skills. But I had to find a way to motivate them, so I came up with (okay, I’m sure I didn’t come up with it, but I decided to use) growth grading. I gave my students benchmark tests throughout the year (usually once a quarter – sometimes more, sometimes less, depending) and explained how they would be graded.
Baseline test: Graded on effort. I would watch the students as they worked and they would earn an “A” if they were working at 100% the entire time. Grades would go down if they weren’t trying. I would record the raw score of each student, but that wouldn’t factor into the grade itself.
Benchmark test #1: This test was graded on growth. I compared the student’s baseline raw score to this benchmark test’s raw score, and if they improved they would earn an “A” or “B” – the amount of improvement would determine which grade they earned. If their raw scores stayed the same (or within a certain percentage of each other) they would earn a “C”. If their score went down or it was obvious they just weren’t trying, they would earn a “D” or “F,” depending on the severity of the decrease/lack of effort.
Subsequent benchmark tests: These were graded the same way. However, if I had students who were earning raw scores in the “A” range, then if they stayed there, they continued to earn an “A”. I wasn’t going to penalize a student for going from a 95% to a 92%.
Students were so motivated once they learned this! The excitement in their eyes and body language when they saw an “A” on their test was inspiring. Even if they went from a 10% to a 20%, they had earned an “A” because they were making progress. It changed their outlook on their work and education.
Of course, I couldn’t grade every assignment like this, but because of this I also began writing raw scores on student work instead of percentages or letter grades. I found that students who were habitually getting “F” grades would get less discouraged if they saw 3/6 instead of “F” or 50%. For some reason, knowing they got half right was less discouraging than seeing that “F” or percentage. Sometimes, if I noticed a student was making progress, I would note it on their test. Just the other day, I had a student who had worked harder than he had the whole year for a full week. He took his notes, did his class work, paid attention…really tried. On his quiz, he only got 2.5/6, but I went back through his other scores for the year and it was the highest grade he’d earned the entire school year. So rather than put “F” on his paper, I wrote him a note: “This is the highest quiz grade you’ve earned all year! Why? Because you did your work and put in the effort! So impressed!” During the next quiz, he seemed discouraged, so I reminded him how much his hard work had paid off and that perhaps his goal this time should just be to get a 3/6 to show improvement. I could tell that changed his attitude and he worked harder on it than he had been.
Give growth grading a try and see if it changes your students’ motivation and self-concept.